here is the article, please use adobe to highlight it.

and there is the color use for …


What is the goal of the text? In other words, what are the authors trying to do with their project? Look for terms such as aim, goal, focus, reason for, or hope. (blue)


What is the missing piece or gap in the research that started the authors’ project? Look for terms of contrast or negation (e.g., however, despite, nevertheless, no, none, not). (green)

object of study

What is the subject that the authors are studying? Look for a key concept that shows up in the abstract, the introduction, the conclusion, and maybe the title. (yellow)


What do the authors suggest is the significance or usefulness of their work to the field? Who do they identify as their primary audience? Look in the discussion, conclusion, or implications section. (purple)

new offering

What is the thesis or argument? What is the new perspective that the authors are offering to the research conversation? Look for places in the introduction where authors explain their main findings or opinions. (orange)

To annotate for rhetorical elements, identify every place where rhetorical elements are located in the text. Using the appropriate colors (e.g. yellow for object of study), highlight the sentences that you believe reveal the rhetorical element. After you have completed your highlighting, insert one “sticky note” for each rhetorical element in the margin of the text. Use each sticky note to write a comment that explains how the rhetorical element is presented. In each sticky note (5 total), answer the questions below:

• Where is it placed in the text? For example, “Here, in the introduction, the authors present…”

• What rhetorical element have you found? Try to paraphrase the definition of the particular rhetorical element. For example, “…the authors present the exigence of their project, which means the missing gap in the research that inspired them to write about their topic…”

• What language clues tell you this is the element you have identified? For example, “…I noticed this element because of the word ‘However,’ which indicates that there is a contrast. In addition, the phrase ‘such places are often managed’ suggests to me that the authors are making a contrast between how the mall is actually managed to how the authors believe they should be managed.”

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