****Please response to every peers response below add citations and references 🙂 *****
Response one: Hypersensitivity is an amplified response that occurs following a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen. This can lead to inflammation and subsequent eradication of healthy tissue. This is also called an allergic reaction. These reactions can occur immediately or be delayed (Randall, 2018). Most hypersensitivity reactions are mild. Mild allergic reactions may present with itching, hives, watery eyes, rash, scratchy throat, and rhinitis (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018).
Nurses must be aware of the signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening allergic reaction requiring an immediate response. Common antigens that are associated with anaphylactic shock include certain foods, such as peanuts, tree nuts, dairy, eggs, and shellfish; environmental allergens, including mold, pollen, venom from insect stings; and certain medications. Symptoms may include flushing, nausea, vomiting, fever, rash, hives, angioedema, the feeling of impending doom, bronchospasm, back pain, and circulatory collapse (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018).
The patient with hypersensitivity reactions must be vigilant in avoidance of the allergens. This avoidance requires careful selection of foods and products at grocery stores and restaurants making it hard for the patient and family as sometimes just being in the vicinity of the allergen can trigger anaphylaxis. Avoidance of public places may become the norm for some people. I am reminded of a popular and ridiculous movie from my wasted youth called “bubble boy”; where the star had to exist within a plastic bubble because he was allergic to the world. Prior to avoidance and vigilance, a comprehensive allergy test must be done to assess for the level of sensitivity and what to actually avoid. A simple blood sample can be all that is required to get this vital information.
Randall, J. (2018). Cellular and immunological complexities. In GCU (Ed.), Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health (1 ed.). Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-cl…
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2018). Allergic reactions. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000005.htm
Response two: Hypersensitivity is defined as, “An exaggerated immune response that occurs on second and following exposures to an antigen” (Randall, 2018). This event is also known as an allergic reaction and can be mild or life-threatening. During this reaction, the healthy tissue becomes inflamed due to degranulation of the mast cells that stimulate the histamine release (Randall, 2018). Common signs and symptoms of a mild hypersensitivity include runny nose and eyes, itching, sneezing, scratchy throat, and a rash (Randall, 2018). However, in cases of anaphylactic shock, nurses must be aware of common symptoms and educate their patients; these symptoms include throat and face swelling, impending doom feelings, fever, hives, and back pain (Randall, 2018).
The level of severity for a hypersensitivity reaction will determine how much this impacts a person’s day on a regular basis. Those who have seasonal allergies may be able to take a daily medication and not be impacted with obnoxious symptoms. However, those who have extreme reactions that may be life threatening must take extra precautions to avoid specific antigens. Those with severe hypersensitivities causing anaphylactic shock must completely avoid their immune triggers, this may include seafood, nuts, dairy products, specific insects, or medications (Randall, 2018). Hypersensitivities may require the person to carry an EpiPen in case they have an encounter with their antigen. This type of immune dysfunction interrupts daily living and relationships due to the severe impact the response has on the individual; this person may have to avoid certain areas or people depending on their allergens.
Randall, J. (2018). Grand Canyon University (Ed). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-cl…
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