1. Match the Key Term to the prompt that fits BEST
    Morality is just a product of our culture and moral upbringing. We don’t really have any basis to criticize the morality of others. Moral truths are based on whatever a person’s social group or culture approves of, whatever they have agreed to believe together.
    Moral truths are primarily expressions of emotion. If I call some act “immoral,” I mainly mean that it makes me angry and upset and that I wish people would stop doing it.
    Moral truths are true independent of what any individual person thinks or feels about them. Moral truths are based on facts about the world. Morality is informed by facts, not merely desires and preferences.
    Moral facts are special kinds of facts unlike ordinary descriptive facts of the world. I know they are true because it is self-evident once I understand the claim being made. Moral truths are always the same, for all people, at all times, in all contexts. No exceptions!
    Moral truths are determined by whatever I judge to be right or wrong. If I think a thing is morally good, then that makes it morally good. Everyone else can say the same thing about themselves. There is no truth or fact of the matter apart from our own opinions and what we each conceive in our own minds.
    Moral truths are important to seek out because we are all ultimately self-centered. It’s just human nature to put ourselves first.
    A. subjectivism
    B. ethical egoism
    C. cultural relativism
    D. emotivism
    E. absolutism
    F. objective realism
    G. self-interest
    H. psychological egoism


  1. Ethical relativism is true because people in Los Angeles have moral beliefs that are very different from the moral beliefs of people in Chicago.” This is not a good basis for an argument for ethical relativism because observing that people hold differing moral beliefs does not tell us what people ought to do. It only tells us about
    descriptive ethics
    ethical egoism
    normative ethics

1 points


  1. Person A says, “One way we know that it is immoral for employers to discriminate against employees on the basis of a person’s gender identity because it is illegal. If gender discrimination were legal, then it would be morally good.” Is what Person A says true or false?

1 points


  1. Socrates was a human. All humans are mortal. Therefore, Socrates was mortal.
    valid deductive argument
    sound deductive argument
    deductive argument (but neither valid nor sound)
    valid deductive argument (We cannot know if it is sound because we do not have knowledge of certain elements in the argument.)

1 points


  1. Every semester there is a certain point when I get overwhelmed, and I don’t believe I will make it through to the end without quitting. Then somehow I make it through. Right now I’m at that point in the semester and I feel like quitting, but I know I will probably make it through.
    inductive argument
    deductive argument
    argument by analogy
    cognitive dissonance

1 points


  1. An argument is made up of ______ and a ______ .

1 points


  1. The Euthyphro Problem is a refutation of a metaethical view called ________ .

1 points


  1. I don’t understand why most Americans don’t object to their country going to war all the time. It would be immoral for the people of California to start attacking and killing the people of Arizona simply because the state government was breaking federal law. So it is immoral for the U.S. to attack and kill people of other countries because those countries’ governments are breaking international law.
    inductive argument
    deductive argument
    argument by analogy
    law of non-contradiction

1 points


  1. Person B says, “Frankly, you can’t dispute all animated TV shows are made for children’s entertainment. I don’t care what you say. I will not watch The Simpsons. It is an animated TV show. So, duh, it is made for children.” How would you characterize this argument?
    sound inductive argument
    valid deductive argument
    neither valid, nor sound deductive argument
    sound inductive argument

1 points


  1. Person C says, “I’m tired of hearing about how a majority of climate scientists are worried that if we do not drastically change our consumption and pollution habits we will face more extreme weather events, like the recent hurricane in the Bahamas. They just want to scare people into buying into their cause so they can preserve some pretty birds that don’t matter to any person’s actual job.” This is an example of
    epistemic charity
    cognitive dissonance
    straw man fallacy

1 points


  1. This is a basic skill of all effective philosophers that aids them in their pursuit of knowledge and truth. It is the simple practice of being respectful and even generous toward the philosophical positions they encounter, always trying to understand others’ positions and arguments in a way that their author’s would approve.
    epistemic charity
    epistemic humility
    dialectical reasoning
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