1. Which microprocessor pins are used to request and acknowledge a DMA transfer? 2. A DMA read transfers data from _________ to  _________. 3. The DMA controller selects the memory location used for a DMA transfer through what bus signals? 4. What is a memory-to-memory DMA transfer? 5. Describe the effect on the microprocessor and DMA controller when the HOLD and HLDA pins are at their logic 0 levels. 6. If the 8237 DMA controller is decoded at I/O ports 2000H -200FH, what ports are used to program channel 1? 7. How many bytes can be transferred by the 8237 DMA controller? 8. Write a sequence of instructions that transfers data from memory to an external I/O device by using channel 3 of the 8237. The memory area to be transferred is at location 20000H -20FFFH. 9. The 3 ½” disk is known as a(n) __________ floppy disk. 10. A track is divided into sections of data called __________. 11. Why is NRZ recording used on a disk memory system? 12. Draw the timing diagram generated to write a 1001010000 using RLL encoding 13. Why must the heads on a hard disk be parked? 14. What is a WORM? 15. How much data can be stored on a common DVD, an HD-DVD, and a Blu-ray DVD? 16. What are the three primary colors of light? 17. What is a pixel? 18. What 8086/8088 signal is used to select the direction of the data flows through the 74LS245 bidirectional bus buffer? 19. How much time is allowed for memory access when the 8086/8088 is operated with a 5MHz clock? 20. What are the five major keywords in VHDL for the five major logic functions (AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and invert)? 21. Write the software required to place a logic 1 on the PC7 pin of the 82C55during strobed input operation. 22. How many ICWs are needed to program the 8259A when operated as a single master in a system? 23. Explain how a TTL RGB monitor can display 16 different colors. 24. Explain how an analog RGB monitor can display an infinite number of colors. 25. If a video system uses a vertical frequency of 60 Hz and a horizontal frequency of 32,400 Hz, how many raster lines are generated?

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