Answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) pages in length. Carefully study and review the section titled “Approaches to Measuring Technological Progress.” Use your own words to write a short compare-and-contrast essay that defines and explains three distinct perspectives on the evolution of technology. As you write, imagine you are talking to a friend who has no knowledge of this topic. In short, write the way you speak, using a conversational tone. Also, try to alternate short sentences and longer sentences to make your writing more readable. Be sure to create a title and cite yourself as the author. For example: A Comparison of Three Perspectives on the Evolution of Technology Mei Quoran Your essay should include five paragraphs, as follows: Paragraph 1 is your lead paragraph. It will contain an overview of what you have to say in comparing and contrasting the perspectives of Gerhard Lenski, Leslie White, and Alvin Toffler with respect to the evolution of technology. Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4, are your body paragraphs. In your essay, use paragraph 2 to describe the perspective of Gerhard Lenski. In paragraph 3, you’ll write about the perspective of Leslie White. In paragraph 4, you’ll describe and discuss the perspective of Alvin Toffler. Paragraph 5 is your summary and conclusion. Here, you’ll compare the three perspectives to show how they are, or may be, similar. You’ll contrast the three perspectives to describe how they’re different. You’ll end this process–and your essay–by expressing your view as to which of these theorists (one or more) offer the most useful insights into the evolution of technology, in your opinion. It’s permissible to use direct quotes from your reading, but don’t use too many. One to three such quotes should be your limit. Be sure to put a direct quote in quotation marks. For example: According to Smith, “Carbon dioxide is both our friend and our enemy.” Measuring Technological Progress Sociologists, anthropologists, and other researchers have developed different ways to measure and understand technological progress. In this section, we’ll review the thoughts of four important theorists. They offer four perspectives on the relationship between technological development and our social world. Gerhard Lenski Sociologist Gerhard Lenski (1924–2015) believed that technological progress has been the driving force in the evolution of civilization. According to Lenski, technological progress and civilization are closely related. In fact, the key to human progress is information . The more we know about harnessing and using natural resources, the more we can advance human society. Lenski recognized four stages of communication, as follows: Stage 1 is the passing of genes from one generation to the next. We might call this biological communication . Stage 2 is sentience , or the ability to feel, perceive, or experience objectively. As we begin to develop awareness and understanding of the world around us, we adapt better to the environment of Earth. We’re able to share our experience. In Stage 3 , we become capable of logic. We apply observation and fact-based analysis to the world. For example, if we see dark clouds in the sky, we recognize that rain is probably on the way. In Stage 4 , we master language, writing, and the ability to create symbols. This stage is the foundation of civilization. Lenski also proposed four levels of technological development, as follows: At the hunter-gatherer level, we physically work to reduce food insecurity. At the next level, we obtain part of the food supply from horticulture (growing plants). At the next level, we engage in organized agriculture. Food surplus allows complex social orders to rise. We experience social class inequality and a complex division of labor. We pursue technological advances in arts, crafts, architecture, and civil engine…

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