Living Systems Require a Flow of Energy In a phrase, how do physicists define “energy”? How would a cell biologist define “energy”? The physicist’s definition of energy is not _______________ for use in defining energy changes within a living cell. List five major sorts or categories of energy change within the cell. On a cold day, which of the following processes do your cells depend on to maintain an operating temperature of 37 degrees Celsius? a. shivering b. muscle contraction c. respiration energy production d. metabolic heat generation e. all of the above Sometimes the cell pumps substances against diffusion forces that would carry those substances the other way.  What term would we give to this process? 6.2 Laws of Energy Flow in the Living World ______ is freely convertible from one form to another but _______ can never be created or destroyed. Systems that convert energy from one form to another are not 100% efficient, thus the amount of useful energy ___________. In nature, as energy freely changes from one form to another, the total amount of energy _________ _________. In living things, energy conversion is inefficient, with much energy being lost in the form of _______. What form of energy do producers use when they set about to generate chemical energy—the energy of C?H and C?O?H bonds. Thus, a producer organism is called a “producer” because it produces usable ______ _______. When your car engine burns the octane in gasoline, in what form does at least 50% of the energy of the octane end up? A lit match cannot continue to burn when the wood of the match stick is consumed.  This statement illustrates what general law of energy flow? In a crowded, unventilated room, what causes the temperature to rise? 6.3 Energy Flows in Chemical Reactions Existing chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed between different atoms.  In the broadest sense, this is the definition for a _______ _________. Give an example of a chemical reaction. Whenever chemical bonds are broken, energy is __________.  Whenever chemical bonds form, energy is __________. Does an endergonic reaction require the input of energy, or does it give off energy? What term is given to the amount of energy required to break the bonds in reactant molecules? What is true of the bonds in reactant molecules that keeps most chemical reactions in nature from occurring? When ________ energy is not available for a given chemical reaction, the reaction will not go. 6.4 Enzymes Direct Energy Flow How is the activation energy of desired reactions lowered in living things, so that the desired reactions are able to go forward? What words best describe the way in which enzymes bind to reactant molecules? What exactly does an enzyme do the chemical bonds within the reactant molecule? By binding to reactant molecules, what effect does an enzyme have on the activation energy for a given reaction? 6.5 Energy Flow in Reaction Pathways:  Metabolism What name do we give to sequences of chemical reactions within cells? In a (n) ________ the product of one reaction becomes the reactant of the next reaction and so on. If the final end product of a metabolic pathway is continually removed and used elsewhere, then the reactions of the entire pathway will be pulled in the direction of making more _____ ____________. Suppose an excess amount of product accumulates at the end of a metabolic pathway.  The product then binds to the allosteric site of the first enzyme along the pathway, shutting down the pathway.  What do we call this regulatory process? An allosteric enzyme has a second binding site other than its own active site for converting substrate to product.  What does this second site bind to? If the final product of a metabolic pathway begins to build up in excess, the pathway can often be slowed down by a process called ______________ ____________. A single regulatory molecule can shut down multiple metabolic pathways if it is able to add _______…

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