# Exercise A Identify the object and the comment of a proposition

Exercise A. Identify the object and the comment of a proposition

In this exercise, you will be given a proposition and asked to determine its object and comment.

Example: Mary has a firm command of the subject matter.

Object: Mary

Comment: that she has a firm command of the subject matter

1. Kevin is a football player.

Object:

Comment:

1. The dog is going crazy.

Object:

Comment:

1. That cable is 20-foot long.

Object:

Comment:

1. Jen is smarter than Amy.

Object:

Comment:

1. The manager is in his office.

Object:

Comment:

1. The attack took place yesterday.

Object:

Comment:

1. The train has arrived.

Object:

Comment:

1. The wolf runs away.

Object:

Comment:

1. Those insects cause extensive damage.

Object:

Comment:

1. Tom did worse than Jane on the test.

Object:

Comment:

Exercise B. Identify Propositions

Which of the following directly express a proposition? Please fill in the item number of those that are propositions in the right column of the following table, separating each number with a comma.

1. Jack is a Baptist.
2. Game
3. Fantastic!
4. Is the fetus a human person?
5. The Pillsbury Dough Boy
6. Some birds fly south for the winter.
7. Was two blocks south of the library
8. No food or drink in library!
9. I would like a Jaguar XJ-S for Christmas.
10. Ran too fast for me to catch him
11. Are you waiting for the bus?
12. While waiting for the bus to come, I read the newspaper
13. The tallest building in the world
14. The Sears Tower is the tallest building in the world.
15. Awesome!
16. Native Americans are the indigenous people of the Americas.
17. Have you done the homework?
18. Are the indigenous people
19. Juliet is a dark and brooding beauty.
20. How can you do that?

Exercise C. Propositions, Sentences, and Words

In this exercise, you will be given two sentences and asked to determine whether they assert the same proposition.

Example: Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Mary has a firm command of the subject matter.

Mary has a good comprehension of the subject matter.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Jack is a Christian.

Jack is a Protestant.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Mary has a firm command of the subject matter.

Mary has a good comprehension of the subject matter.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Native Americans are the primitive people who lived in America before the advent of the Europeans.

Native Americans are the indigenous people of the Americas.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Insects are dangerous pests.

Each year, insects cause billions of dollars of crop damage.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Juliet is the sun.

Juliet is a dark and brooding beauty.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Jane did better than Tom on the test.

Tom did worse than Jane on the test.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Some masters are surpassed by their disciples.

Some disciples are surpassed by their masters.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

Some masters are surpassed by their disciples.

Some disciples surpass their masters.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

The president knows that war is imminent.

The president believes that war is imminent.

1. Do the following two sentences express the same proposition?

The Japanese who eat lots of fish have fewer heart attacks.

The Japanese, who eat lots of fish, have fewer heart attacks.

Exercise D. Embedded Propositions

In this exercise, you will be given a proposition and asked to identify propositions embedded in it. Please enlarge the space below the question to write your answer.

Example: Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “Information about DNA, RNA, and the proteins found in different species can be compared to establish taxonomic relationships.”

Answer: The embedded propositions are as follows.

1. There is information about DNA, RNA, and the proteins.
2. Information about DNA, RNA, and the proteins are found in different species.
1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “Scientists believe that eukaryotic cells developed as a result of a process of endosymbiosis.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “Spiders that are poisonous are the black widow and the brown recluse.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “Snakes, which are reptiles without legs, kill large number of rodents.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “The fact that half of his freshman class believe in leprechauns was a shock to the new philosophy professor.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “The recent acquisition of a nuclear capability by Pakistan poses a danger to stability in the Indian basin.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “The Volkswagen Beetle, which some people consider the finest compact car ever made, has not been produced since 1974.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “Some music theorists hold that the sonata form, with its three stages of exposition, development, and recapitulation, is best suited for expressing complex emotional themes.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “The spending bill that Congress passed last month was widely criticized as irresponsible.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “The rhododendron is a woody shrub that grows best in acid soil and shade.”

1. Identify embedded propositions in the following proposition: “The overnight express mail services fear that the increasingly widespread use of fax machines will hurt their business.”

Exercise E. Affirmativeness

In this exercise, you will be given a proposition and asked to indicate those embedded propositions that are asserted. Please enlarge the space below the question to write your answer.

Example 1: Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “Information about DNA, RNA, and the proteins found in different species can be compared to establish taxonomic relationships.”

Answer: The following embedded propositions are asserted.

1. There is information about DNA, RNA, and the proteins.
2. Information about DNA, RNA, and the proteins are found in different species.

Example 2: Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “Gerard Manley Hopkins was either a genius or insane.”

Answer: None of the embedded propositions is asserted.

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “Scientists believe that eukaryotic cells developed as a result of a process of endosymbiosis.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “Spiders that are poisonous are the black widow and the brown recluse.”

.

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “Snakes, which are reptiles without legs, kill large number of rodents.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “The fact that half of his freshman class believe in leprechauns was a shock to the new philosophy professor.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “The recent acquisition of a nuclear capability by Pakistan poses a danger to stability in the Indian basin.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “The Volkswagen Beetle, which some people consider the finest compact car ever made, has not been produced since 1974.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “Some music theorists hold that the sonata form, with its three stages of exposition, development, and recapitulation, is best suited for expressing complex emotional themes.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “The spending bill that Congress passed last month was widely criticized as irresponsible.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “The rhododendron is a woody shrub that grows best in acid soil and shade.”

1. Indicate the embedded propositions that are asserted in the following proposition: “The overnight express mail services fear that the increasingly widespread use of fax machines will hurt their business.”

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