these are 2 paragraphs reflections i need please a respond for each one so each respond must be 180 words

first one :

Good evening all,

After reading the assigned chapter, there were things I had not previously considered regarding race and ethnicity. Mostly it was the definitions of these two terms in Chapter 1. The example I would like to cite is the definition of race compared to ethnicity. According to the text, race is basically the categorization of human beings with certain physical attributes that were inherited by descent compared to the definition of ethnicity which is defined by cultural/national characteristics (Pages 5 and 10). Another fascinating topic covered in this chapter are the types of discrimination. For example, isolate discrimination is a “Type A”, small-group discrimination “Type B”, direct institutionalized discrimination “Type C” and lastly, indirect institutionalized discrimination “Type D”. In addition to these types of discrimination are also subtle and covert discrimination. I like how this chapter discusses the historical connotations and usages of these terms. I also like how the text discussed how societies and institutions tried to use these terms, in conjunction with pseudoscience to justify their positions. These topics are relevant today because as we have seen, people will conduct poor or unethical research to advance discrimination. But the most important take away that I got from this chapter, is just how dangerous ideologies such as race and ethnicity can have negative repercussions.

second one :

After reading chapter one, it honestly reminds me of what I learned in AFAM 335 – History of Racism class but on a broader level. I liked that fact that it made reference to how the term racism came about. How scientists at the time tried very hard to give “evidence” on how other races, even other Caucasians (like the Irish and eastern European), were sub par. There is a difference between expressing the different characteristics a group of people may have and using those differences as a way to back up prejudicial views. I believe it was easily accepted because the human mind does like to categorize any type of information since it is easier to do so. It is a way to be able to access that information at any point in time. Therefore, when the scientists came out with their pseudoscience, it was very easy for people to accept it as true, even if it wasn’t. Again, most of the information in chapter 1 is an overview for me, but I look forward to learning different ethnic groups and the relations among them and United States as a whole.

so 2 responding one for each and must be 180 words

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