Guiding Questions How did the roles of problem solving, insight, and activity change ideas about learning (Gestalt approaches)? How have Cognitivist approaches impacted teaching and learning and what is their significance? In what ways do this week’s readings connect with your experiences of teaching and learning? Pre-Reading Before attending to this week’s readings, think about the questions above. Much like you would do a K-W-L Chart with your students; determine what you KNOW about the topic and what you WANT to KNOW about the topic. Your R2R Post will indicate what you LEARNED about this week’s content. Refer to the R2R details and the success criteria outlined in the Syllabus. Readings Phillips & Soltis: Chapter 4 Schunk: Chapter 5 Activities Complete Assigned Readings Post R2R#3 ( Comment on at least 2 of your classmates’ posts Reply to the first person to comment on your post Classmate 1 The main difference between behavioral theories and cognitive theories is that behavioral theories did not take into account what was going on in the human mind. In the world of behaviorism, there was a focus on forming associations between a stimuli and a response. Cognitivism on the other hand, focuses on the internal processes that intervene between a stimuli and a response (Schunk, 2012).  It is also important to note that cognitivism differs from behaviorism in the belief that the whole is meaningful and looses meaning when reduced to individual components, where as in behaviorism the opposite is true. The Gestalt theory had a huge impact on how teaching and learning is viewed today. In Gestalt view, learning is a cognitive phenomenon involving reorganizing experiences into different perceptions of things, people, or events (Schunk, 2012). The Gestalt theory connects problem solving, insights and activity. When a person encounters a problem, there is a natural instinct to solve that problem. The only variable known at the beginning stages is the problem itself. The person now has to determine the missing piece; the solution. That person may go through multiple experiences before finally finding a solution; this is when insight occurs. According to the gestalt theory, humans use the principles of proximity, similarity, common direction, simplicity and closure to reorganize experiences. Cognitive theories contributed much to teaching and learning. In cognitivism, many things are considered regarding how humans learn. Attention span is one of the factors the contributes to learning and how information is processed. Attention span refers to how long a person can focus on the same things before their mind wanders off to something else. Schunk states that attention span is related to student age, hyper-activity, intelligence, and learning disabilities. By taking into consideration these different factors educators can begin to identify the differences in their learners. Teachers can promote student attention through the use of classroom activities related to content. Along with attention span, cognitive theories take into consideration, reception of information, perception, short term/working memory, prior knowledge and experiences of the learning. Teachers promote learning through the use of visuals, hand-on activities and short instruction. The biggest contribution to learning from cognitivism is allowing students to play a role in their learning, rather than always being expected to see the world from someone else’ view. Students are able to build knowledge through the exposure of a wide range of experiences. I strongly believe in cognitive theories. For me, the idea that  knowledge is acquired through learning is the most important aspect of cognitivism. As an educator, I believe that each of my students has the ability to learn and gain knowledge and learn. Being that most of my students of ELL’s I know that in order for learning to occur, I have to display information in various ways to meet the needs of my various lea…

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