just answer the 20 question

1. Authoritarian states are characterized by strong central governments that fairly stringently limit the range of political activity. More often than not, they are one-party states, which means that only one party, that which supports the government, is allowed to engage in political activity. Free discussion and association are strictly curtailed in these systems. Anyone who might dare to criticize the government or to express ideas that are not in conformity with its policies can be severely punished, even by death.

a. Argument; conclusion: More often than not … engage in political activity

b. Nonargument.

c. Argument; conclusion: Authoritarian states … limit the range of political activity

d. Argument; conclusion: Free discussion and association … in these systems.

2. Prior to their extinction, Neanderthals had been widespread in Europe for 100,000 years. Then 50,000 years ago, modern humans moved into Europe from Africa. Twenty-six thousand years after that the last Neanderthal died. At one time it was thought that the Neanderthals were killed by climate change, but this theory has now been discounted. So why did the Neanderthals perish? We may conclude that probably they were killed by the humans

a. Argument; conclusion: Then 50,000 years ago … Europe from Africa.

b. Argument; conclusion: At one time it was thought … now been discounted.

c. Argument; conclusion: Prior to their extinction … 100,000 years.

d. Argument; conclusion: Probably they were killed by the humans.

3. Hair turns color when we age because the follicles at the base of the hair shaft cease to produce melanin. Melanin is a

chemical that gives the hair shaft its color (black, brown, blond, red, and all shades in between). The darkness or lightness

of your hair depends on how much melanin each strand contains. With age, the cells in the follicle that produce melanin

die off. As they do so, that hair strand will become silver, grey, or white, as it grows.

a. Argument; conclusion: The follicles … cease to produce melanin.

b. Argument; conclusion: Hair turns color when we age.

c. Argument; conclusion: With age, the cells in the follicle … die off.

d. Nonargument.

4. Water is a highly reactive substance, quite different both physically and chemically from most other liquids. Indeed, life

as we know it would be impossible if water did not have the properties it does. The first living systems presumably arose

in the aqueous environment of shallow seas. It follows that the living organisms of the present are adapted at the

molecular level to the special properties of water.

a. Argument; conclusion: Water is a highly reactive … most other liquids.

b. Argument; conclusion: The living organisms … properties of water.

c. Argument; conclusion: Life as we know it … the properties it does.

d. Nonargument.

5. Scientists have recently shown that heaps of intact DNA from the extinct wooly mammoth are retrievable from the

animals’ fur. A great deal of that fur is readily available in natural history museums. Also, such amounts of DNA make it

possible to piece together the entire mammoth genome. Hence, we can expect to see mammoth clones in the future.

a. Argument; conclusion: A great deal of that fur … natural history museums.

b. Nonargument.

c. Argument; conclusion: Scientists have recently shown … animals’ fur.

d. Argument; conclusion: We can expect to see … in the not too distant future.

6. The loss of arctic ice is accelerating as a result of a form of positive feedback. As arctic ice melts, the arctic icecap

reflects fewer rays from the sun. When this happens, more rays are absorbed by the surrounding ocean, which causes an

increase in its temperature. As the temperature of the ocean rises, more arctic ice melts.

a. Argument; conclusion: When this happens … which increases its temperature.

b. Argument; conclusion: As the temperature of the ocean rises … ice melts.

c. Argument; conclusion: The loss of arctic ice … positive feedback.

d. Nonargument.

7. Which of the following words is a premise indicator?

a. It must be the case that.

b. Thus.

c. Consequently.

d. Given that.

8. Which of the following words is a conclusion indicator?

a. Because.

b. For.

c. Implies that.

d. For the reason that.

9. Imagine that a square A is placed inside a circle B. It follows that the area of A is less than the area of B.

a. Inductive, prediction.

b. Inductive, analogy.

c. Deductive, mathematics.

d. Deductive, hypothetical syllogism.

10. If people can talk to the dead, then the dead are still alive. People cannot talk to the dead. Therefore, the dead are not

still alive.

a. Deductive, disjunctive syllogism.

b. Inductive, causal.

c. Deductive, hypothetical syllogism.

d. Inductive, analogy.

11. Judy and her friend Claire both love art exhibits, and Judy thought that the painting exhibit at the museum was

superb. Therefore, probably Claire would like that exhibit, too.

a. Inductive, analogy.

b. Deductive, synonym.

c. Inductive, authority.

d. Deductive, hypothetical syllogism.

12. Michelle is an agnostic. Therefore, she doesn’t have any belief either way about whether God exists.

a. Deductive, hypothetical syllogism.

b. Inductive, analogy.

c. Inductive, authority.

d. Deductive, synonym.

13. Many women have been elected to political offices in recent years. Therefore, it is likely that the next American

President will be a woman.

a. Inductive, analogy.

b. Inductive, prediction.

c. Inductive, authority.

d. Deductive, categorical syllogism.

14. Which of the following words is not a conclusion indicator?

a. Accordingly.

b. For the reason that.

c. Wherefore.

d. Implies that.

e. Thus.

16. Which of the following sentences is not a statement?

a. Car sales are off this year.

b. The gypsy moth is a threat to agriculture.

c. Pile these boxes of books in the corner.

d. Mr. Jarvis was attacked by a grizzly bear.

e. Your bicycle has a flat tire

17. In an explanation, the statement that describes the event to be explained is called the:

a. Explanandum.

b. Explicans.

c. Consequent.

d. Antecedent.

e. Explanans.

18. Which of the following is an argument?

a. A conditional statement.

b. A warning.

c. A hypothetical syllogism.

d. A piece of advice.

e. A report.

19. Which of the following is not an inductive argument?

a. An argument based on signs.

b. A causal inference.

c. An argument from analogy.

d. An argument from definition.

e. A prediction.

39. Which of the following is an inductive argument?

a. A disjunctive syllogism.

b. A causal inference.

c. An argument from mathematics.

d. A hypothetical syllogism.

e. An expository passage.

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