# 2 02 the physics 400 module 2 kepler kingdom

Procedure:

1. Locate an area that has at least four meters of smooth, level surface. This area could be a tile, linoleum, or smooth concrete surface. Avoid carpeted areas if possible.
2. Set up a straight, level path to serve as the course for a rolling ball. Use a ruler and small pieces of tape to mark the following intervals: start (zero position), 100.0 cm, 200.0 cm, 300.0 cm, and 400.0 cm. Note: Be sure to leave enough room behind the start position so you can get the ball rolling. Also, do not place tape on any surface that might be marred by the adhesive.
3. Participant 1 will be the ball roller and should stand behind the start position. Participant 2 will operate the stopwatch and should be positioned to easily view when the ball crosses each marking.
4. Participant 1 should practice rolling the ball along the path. Give the ball enough energy to travel the entire course without going far beyond the last mark. This requires a gentle, firm roll. Do your best to roll the ball the same way for each trial.
5. Roll the ball as practiced. Start the stopwatch when the ball reaches the starting position, and stop the stopwatch at the instant the rolling ball reaches the 100.0 cm mark. Record the time as Trial 1 in the table.
6. Repeat step 5, starting the stopwatch when the ball reaches the 100.0 cm mark and stopping the stopwatch when the ball reaches the 200.0 cm mark. Record the time as Trial 2 in the table.
7. Repeat step 5, starting the stopwatch when the ball reaches the 200.0 cm mark and stopping your stopwatch when the ball reaches the 300.0 cm mark. Record the time as Trial 3 in the table.
8. Repeat step 5, starting the stopwatch when the ball reaches the start position and stopping your stopwatch when the ball reaches the 400.0 cm mark. Record the time as Trial 4 in the table.
9. Answer the questions based on the data you have collected.

## Data Collection and Questions

Data Collection—Table 1:

Trials Distance (cm) Time (s) Average Speed (cm/s)
1 100.0 cm (first section)
2 100.0 cm (second section)
3 100.0 cm (third section)
4 400.0 cm (entire section)

Questions:

1. Why are the speed values in Table 1 called “average” instead of “instantaneous”?
2. Refer to the data from trials 1-3.
1. What happens to the average speed of the rolling ball as it moves from one 100.0 cm segment to the next 100.0 cm segment?
2. What causes the change in the ball’s speed as it moves from one 100.0 cm segment to the next 100.0 cm segment?
3. One meter is equal to 100.0 cm (1 m = 100 cm). Use your data from Trial 4 to calculate the average speed of the rolling ball in m/s (meters per second).
4. Suppose you are going on a car trip with your family.
1. How could you determine the average speed for the first day of the trip? Be specific.
2. How could you determine the instantaneous speed during the trip? Be specific.

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