U.S. Work and Labor Before the End of Reconstruction

First Paper Assignment

Professor Patrick McGrath

“The beginning of European settlement of the Americas from 1492 was marked by an extensive demand for labor. The earliest forms of labor involved both coerced labor and forms of indentured servitude that utilized the work of Europeans, Native Americans and African peoples. By the late 1600s, this fluid labor arrangement became more restrictive and formalized, with a form of racially (African) based slavery imposed in North America. What factors contributed to this development? How and why did this transformation occur?” (question courtesy of Professor Francis Ryan)

Drawing on material from the lectures and readings, write a paper of roughly 1500 words (or 4-6 double-spaced pages) in response to the above essay prompt. Use clear and precise language in your essay and provide ample evidence to support your claims. Also make sure to cite your sources.

The draft of the paper is due at the start of class on October 5th. Please submit your draft via the ASSIGNMENTS function on the course SAKAI page. Also bring two hard copies of the draft to class.

Citation Guide

In your essays please make sure to cite your sources. You are free to use any citation method you choose—just make sure you are consistent. Listed below are links to reference guides for two of the most popular citation styles, MLA and Chicago.

MLA: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/

Chicago: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citation…

The in-class tobacco exercise was taken from William Wheeler and Susan Becker, eds., Discovering the American Past: A Look at the Evidence, Volume I (Belmont: Wadsworth, 2007).

If you would like to cite material from lecture, just make sure to provide the date of the relevant lecture. (For example, in a footnote you would just write, “Lecture, September 22, 2016.”)

Parenthetical Citation

For in-text parenthetical citation, make sure to cite the author and page number. Also place the period that concludes the sentence after the parenthesis.

Examples (from volume 2 of Who Built America):

The Civil War promoted the rapid industrialization of the United States (Rosenzweig et al. 7).

The American Civil War “inaugurated a period of extraordinary growth and consolidation for the American economy” (Rosenzweig et al. 27).

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