post 1 Discuss chemical dependency as either a primary or secondary concern for disaster management. List three potential concerns and identify a possible solution for each. Choose and defend which one is the primary solution Chemical dependency it is a physical and psychological dependency in specific substance and it is one of the most costly of public health problems in the United States. The American Medical Association and World Health Organization recognize substance addiction, including alcoholism, nicotine addiction and drug addiction as a disease. Most disaster research acknowledges that consequences from what happened are psychological disorders and substance use often accompany socioeconomic loss and displacement. The first significant concern of chemical dependency for disaster management is the increasing use of substance after the disaster and there are many factors contributed to that such as education, children, low income, and high disaster exposure. The possible solution for that is social and family support because many people believe that drug and alcohol help them to cope with the situation. Second concern will be communication, communication will be vital to an effective emergency response with chemical dependency. However, because of the what happened in the disaster drug user might be aggressive and they refuse they help. The possible solution is to ensure that we have enough health care professional to serve that affected population. The third concern, the increase using of chemicals such as drug and alcohol might cause severe disease such as a cardiovascular disease which needs specific treatment that may be challenging during the disaster. The solution for that is to raise awareness about health issues related to chemical dependency. Cepeda, A., Valdez, A., Kaplan, C., & Hill, L. E. (2009). Patterns of substance use among hurricane Katrina evacuees in Houston, Texas. Disasters, 34(2), 426-46. Dunlap, E., Johnson, B. D. & Morse, E post 2 yous According to Rose et al. (2018), human beings have different reactions to disaster. Whereas some people generally cope well after such events, others tend to go into depression and eventually, chemical dependency. For most victims, these substances offer the quickest relief from psychological stress. Catastrophic disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, tend to have significant psychological impacts. Therefore, disaster management and response teams need to plan for the social outcomes of such disasters. However, these outcomes are a secondary concern, especially when there are lives in immediate danger Chemical dependency results in long-term physiological effects. These effects include cardiovascular and respiratory problems and, in some instance, cancer. The cost of managing these conditions is quite high, therefore the best solution would be creating an awareness of the health risks of substance abuse. Contrary to what most people believe, mind-altering substances accentuate rather than alleviate psychological conditions. Continuous use of these substances increases the risk of depressions and other mental health conditions, especially in women (Finkelstein, 2011). Disaster management teams should set up counseling and support centers to cater to at-risk individuals. Lastly, individuals who are already addicted to these chemical substances require assistance to withdraw. A possible solution would be to establish more rehabilitation centers. Most people tend to abuse chemical substances after exposure to stressful conditions (Perkinson, 2016). Therefore, the primary concern for disaster response teams is to assist individuals to cope with stress. By setting up counseling centers during and after a disaster, disaster management teams are able to reach out to individuals negatively affected by the disaster and provide the requisite assistance. These centers are a preventative measure and are essential in reducing the costs associated with the long-term …

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