*** please response to peers DQ answers separately, add citation and references 🙂 ****

Reponse one: Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Common risk factors include gender, age, race, family history, and body frame size. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men are. Lowered sex hormones tend to weaken bone. “The reduction of estrogen levels in women at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis.” (Mayo Clinic, 2019) Whites and Asians have the greatest risk of developing the disease and people who have small body frames tend to be at a higher risk due to less bone mass.

Nurses can play a role in prevention and detection of osteoporosis as well as the management of the disease. Interacting with your patients and recognizing what demographic they fall into will be a great help so that the correct questions are asked. Nurses are able to educate their patients regarding bone health and interventions that can be done to help prevent and slow the process of osteoporosis such as weight barring exercise, proper amounts of calcium and vitamin D consumption.


Mayo Clinic. (2019, June 19). Osteoporosis. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: The reduction of estrogen levels in women at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis.

Response two: Osteoporosis is, “A condition of decreased bone mineral density making the bone porous and increasing the risk of fractures” (Falkner & Green, 2018). This condition results in the thinning of bones due to a disruption in the normal staging of minerals (Falkner & Green,2018). There are many risk factors associated with osteoporosis. Some of these include a family history of the condition, Caucasian, older; age, being a female, and fair skin (Falkner & Green, 2018). These conditions are nonmodifiable, however, there are some risk factors that can be adjusted. A sedentary lifestyle, high caffeine intake, obesity, and smoking are risk factors that may lead to osteoporosis (Falkner & Green, 2018).

In order to help manage osteoporosis, nurses must focus on helping a patient return to a better quality of function. This includes managing the symptoms associated with osteoporosis. Nonpharmacological and pharmacological management of pain is a priority for this patient population (Falkner & Green, 2018). Medication, heat, and ice are acceptable ways to manage pain and discomfort; other methods include acupuncture and specific exercises (Falkner & Green). Patient education about management of their osteoporosis is essential as well as education about their risk factors.

Falkner, A. & Green, S. (2018). Grand Canyon University (Ed). Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-cl…

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