All organizations are made up of individuals. Understanding how these individuals work, relate, and socialize together is a crucial aspect of forming productive teams. I/O psychologists work with the science of psychology as it applies to organizations and the working world. Personnel psychology is a part of the “industrial” portion of I/O psychology. It studies individual psychological aspects and personality characteristics and how they impact the recruitment and selection process. Proper analysis of these processes may contribute to effective performance in individuals. Many psychological constructs can be related to current and contemporary practices in HR management.

Understanding the relationship between these constructs and the field of HRM is important for the psychological practitioner. The psychological practitioner will evaluate and assess the tools and methods employed by the organizations in which he or she works, within the scope of his or her qualifications and credentials. When making any employment-related decision, psychological practitioners must consider how individual and organizational systems interact, which means striking a balance between the “industrial” and “organizational” sides of an organization. These factors must be considered even when assessing and measuring individual differences. Some of these psychological constructs might include:

  • Motivation.
  • Cognitive ability.
  • Aptitude.
  • Leadership.
  • Personality and individual differences.
  • Person-to-job fit.
  • Person-to-organization fit.

Compare two of these constructs and discuss the theoretical similarities and differences between them. Also, as you write your response, consider and address that although the notion of personnel psychology requires the analysis of individual psychological aspects and personality characteristics, no individual in any human system—including a work organization—operates in a vacuum. So in considering psychological constructs and individual differences, it is essential to address, in context, how the micro (individual) and macro (organizational) levels interact.

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