PSY 610 Week 5 assignment

Applied Social Psychology Literature Review

Throughout this course, you have been exploring the ways in which social psychological principles can be applied to various careers. This week, you will create a literature review of articles that cover some of the main topics of applied social psychology. You should frame your review as if you were explaining the purpose of the field to someone who does not know about social psychology. To do this, you will write a literature review that contains five articles, each of which focuses on a different theory. Two of the five articles can be from the literature review for your case study that you wrote last week; however, they each must cover different theories. The other three articles should pertain to different theories that have been discussed throughout the course or that will be discussed in Week Six.

Remember, even though these articles are not necessarily related, the literature review must still have a thesis statement (e.g., Applied social psychology is a field that is important because it is relevant to…) and a conclusion that reinforces your claim. Since you are allowed to use your review of two articles from your previous literature review, please ensure you make any necessary modifications to your analysis so that they match the thesis statement and conclusion of this literature review.

The literature review must be five to seven pages in length, not including title and reference pages. All of the articles that you use must be recent (published within the past 10 years). You should also cite other material (e.g., seminal works about the theories) as appropriate to help you contextualize and explain the articles that you are discussing. Format your paper according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

As a side note: you may be able to draw from articles that you have used in this literature review when completing the Integrative Literature Review for PSY699, the capstone course.

This is all you need because you already have week 6 question and answer.

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal Scenario One: Scientist vs. Practitioner Decision Making Gap

D.C., a 30 year old woman, has recently accused her father of sexually abusing her as a child. She claims to have had no recollection of the abuse until she remembered it during a therapy session with a clinical psychologist last year. As a result of D.C.’s accusation her father, Michael, was arrested and is about to stand trial for this crime. Michael’s defense attorney plans to call a social psychology expert who specializes in clinical versus actuarial decision making. The expert will testify that clinical opinions rendered by mental health practitioners are mere hypotheses based on little or no empirical evidence. The expert will further testify that research shows that repressed/recovered memories are unreliable and generally false memories. Therefore, the belief in the existence of repressed/recovered traumatic memories may be the result of belief perseverance, illusory correlation, hindsight bias and overconfidence, and self-confirming diagnoses.

The prosecution will call a psychology expert who specializes as a mental health practitioner. This expert will testify that victims of trauma may repress painful memories and are able to recover them accurately at a later date. This expert will further testify that clinical training and clinical intuition supersede scientific evidence in this context because s/he believes there are “alternate ways of knowing.”

The judge cannot determine which expert’s testimony is correct. The heart of the judge’s concern is the extent to which clinical opinions may be unreliable. If the defense expert is correct that clinical intuition is pseudoscientific at best then the claims of recovered memories are suspicious. However, if the prosecution expert is correct, then the judge must allow jurors to hear the mental health practitioner’s testimony on repressed/recovered memories.

The judge has appointed you, an applied social psychology expert, to review the scientific literature on the reliability and validity of clinical versus actuarial (statistical) judgments, on clinical repressed/recovered memory, as well research on belief perseverance, illusory correlation, hindsight bias, overconfidence, and self-confirming diagnoses to advise the Court in this regard.The Court needs you to provide a scholarly analysis of the scientific, peer-reviewed literature on these topics. You must also render a professional opinion regarding your conclusion

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal as to which expert’s testimony is true and accurate. Your opinion should be based on the scientific, peer-reviewed research that you reviewed. The following peer-reviewed journal articles are a good place to start to familiarize yourself with the decision making controversy between mental health practitioners and social (experimental) psychologists.

Magnussen, S., & Melinder, A. (2012). What psychologists know and believe about memory: A survey of practitioners. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(1), 54-60. doi:10.1002/acp.1795. Retrieved from the Academic Search Complete database through the ashford University Library.

Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F. (2014). Are the “memory wars” over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Psychological Science, 25, 519-530. doi: 10.1177/0956797613510718

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal Scenario Two: Police Interrogations and False Confessions

On August 1, 1988, Tanner Martin awoke to find both of his parents unconscious and bloody in the family home. Tanner, 17 years old at the time, called police who immediately suspected him of harming his parents. They took him to the police station, administered a polygraph examination, and interrogated him for 15 hours. After 15 hours of intense interrogation, the police told Tanner that he failed the polygraph. They also told him that his father had regained consciousness and reported that Tanner bludgeoned him and his wife. Tanner denied any recollection of committing such a heinous act. However, he stated that he has never known his father to tell a lie. Tanner believed he must be guilty of the crime and confessed that he bludgeoned his parents.

At trial, Tanner’s attorney found out that the police lied to Tanner. Tanner actually passed the polygraph examination and both of Tanner’s parents were deceased when police arrived at the scene of the crime. Therefore, Mr. Martin never made a statement of Tanner’s guilt. The judge ruled that police are allowed to lie to suspects about such things. The jury heard Tanner’s confession and rendered a unanimous verdict of guilty. The judge sentenced Tanner to 50 years to life in prison.

Tanner appealed his conviction immediately. However, it was not until DNA evidence found at the scene was finally tested and unequivocally cleared him that his conviction was vacated and he was released from prison in 2013. The DNA belonged to Mr. Martin’s business partner who had embezzled $500,000 from their company and faked his own death five days after the Martins’ murder.

This situation has been very embarrassing and citizens’ trust in the police chief and mayor has plummeted as a result. They want to make sure something similar never happens again. The police chief now has a clear understanding that 25% of wrongful convictions in the United States are the direct result of false confession. Therefore, the police chief has reached out to you, an expert in the social psychology of police interrogation tactics and false confessions, to understand how it is that officers elicit false confessions and why people confess to crimes they did not commit.

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal the police chief has retained you, an applied social psychology expert, to provide a scholarly analysis of the scientific, peer-reviewed literature on the factors related to false confessions such as confirmation bias, obedience to authority, compliance, social influence, and (interrogative) suggestibility. You must also render a professional opinion regarding your conclusion as to where police erred and what they should avoid doing in the future. Your opinion should be based on the scientific, peer-reviewed social psychology research that you reviewed. The following peer-reviewed journal articles are a good place to start to familiarize yourself with the social psychology of false confessions.

Gudjonssen, G.H. & Pearse, J. (2011). Suspect interviews and false confessions.Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 33-37.

Kassin, S. M. (2012, April 30). Why Confessions Trump Innocence. American Psychologist, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028212

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal Scenario Three: The Psychology of Disaster Preparedness

In September 2003 a Category Two hurricane made landfall in a town that was ill prepared for such a natural disaster. The hurricane claimed over 100 lives and caused approximately $1.4 billion in damages. This large American city had not experienced a natural disaster of this proportion for more than 100 years. Therefore, none of the current citizens had any personal knowledge of exactly what preparations might be in order to survive such an event. In the wake of the storm prosocial (helping) behaviors to aid hurricane victims were at an all-time high. Unfortunately, many lives were lost as a direct result of the lack of pre-disaster preparedness on the part of the citizens residing in the affected city.

Local and federal emergency management agencies have researched extensively what went wrong with their disaster response plans. Findings show that they were adequately prepared to respond to a disaster once it happened but that they were seriously lacking in preparing citizens to take seriously the possibility that disaster could strike at any time. In fact, in the days leading up to the approaching storm, many warnings were issued to the public to take precautions up to and including evacuation. However, public perception appeared to be that the media and local leaders were exaggerating the level of imminent danger. A recent national survey shows that even in light of this disaster and the widespread publicity it received, Americans are no more prepared for this type of catastrophe than they were in 2003 (FEMA, 2006).

These results are worrisome to federal and local authorities, and to disaster preparedness teams who attempt to warn the public of impending danger. The frustration lies in the fact that tactical plans for responding are well implemented, practiced, and executed successfully when disaster strikes. However, persuading the public to take seriously their personal responsibility has been amassive failure. Officials now realize that they need the advice of an applied social psychology expert to help them implement social marketing to raise public awareness of the need for disaster preparedness.

FEMA has retained you, an applied social psychology expert, to provide a scholarly analysis of the scientific, peer-reviewed literature on the factors related to attitude and behavior change such as risk perception, persuasion theories, persuasion techniques, motivation, and self-efficacy. You

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal must also render a professional opinion regarding your conclusion as to what FEMA officials can do to elicit greater public trust and participation in pre-disaster preparation particularly in towns where natural disasters are not likely to occur. Your opinion should be based on the scientific, peer-reviewed social psychology research that you reviewed. The following peer-reviewed journal articles are a good place to start to familiarize yourself with the social psychology of disaster preparedness.

Citizen Corps (2006). Citizen corps personal behavior change model for disaster preparedness. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved from https://www.citizencorps.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/re…

Gantt, P., & Gantt, R. (2012). Disaster psychology: Dispelling the myths of panic. Professional Safety, 42-49.

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal Scenario Four: Attraction and Relationships

After being in a long-term relationship Alisha is suddenly single again. In fact, it seems to Alisha that her professional and social circle is becoming more and more populated with people who are in a similar situation. Alisha often hears from her friends and acquaintances how difficult dating can be and she has experienced this as well. The friends commiserate often over the difficulty of dating and how hard it is to meet someone they are attracted to that will lead to a long term relationship. Alisha and her friends have used various methods of dating such as matchmaking websites and speed dating but none of these have resulted in lasting, meaningful relationships. Alisha thinks that part of the problem may be a lack of understanding of the social psychology of attraction.

Alisha, an entrepreneur, has decided to start her own matchmaking business. However, Alisha wants her business to be different from other matchmaking companies. She wants to focus on highlighting the factors that are likely to lead to meaningful intimate relationships rather than simple physical attraction. Alisha is also considering whether meeting someone online is the best approach for discovering lasting love. She acknowledges that it is a popular approach but would also like to consider whether speed dating is a more effective approach in terms of finding a mate. Alisha recognizes that she is a talented businesswoman but does not know much about the social psychology of dating, attraction, and relationships.

Before launching her new matchmaking business Alisha needs to do some research on the science behind love and attraction. She wants to know what factors lead us to like and love others, such as whether opposites really do attract, and what factors contribute to enabling close relationships as opposed to superficial attraction. Additionally, she needs to know whether the best approach is an online dating service or a speed dating service.

Alisha has retained you, an applied social psychology expert, to provide a scholarly analysis of the scientific, peer-reviewed literature on the factors related to attraction and intimacy such as theories of interpersonal attraction, similarity versus complementarity, Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love, factors that enable intimacy, and the success of internet/online dating versus speed dating. You must also render an opinion as to whether Alisha’s business should be an online matchmaking service or focus on speed dating, as well as what factors of attraction are

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal likely to lead to close, lasting relationships. Your opinion should be based on the scientific, peerreviewed social psychology research that you reviewed. The following peer-reviewed journal articles are a good place to start to familiarize yourself with the social psychology of interpersonal attraction in the internet age.

Finkel, E.J., Eastwick, P.W., Karney, B.R., Reis, H.T., & Sprecher, S. (2012). Online dating: A critical analysis from the perspective of psychological science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13, 3-66.

Riela, S., Rodriguez, G., Aron, A., Xu, X., Acevedo, B.P. (2010). Experiences of falling in love: Investigating culture, ethnicity, gender, and speed. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 473-493

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal Scenario Five: Social Psychology of Bullying

Keisha Austin was born and raised in a predominantly white, middle-class neighborhood in the Midwest. Keisha, a 19-year-old biracial woman, was named by her mother who wanted Keisha to feel a connection to her African American culture. Keisha’s mother felt that the name would help Keisha be perceived as a strong black woman. However, after years of being mocked by other kids because she had a stereotypically “black” name, Keisha has legally changed her name to Kylie. The kids at school would crack jokes about whether Keisha’s name was actually LaKeisha and whether her aspirations were to star in a rap music video. Keisha grew tired of being the target of stereotypes that led to bullying and she changed her name to one that she felt sounded more “white.”

This story made national news and was featured in the Huffington Post on November 5, 2013. Educators and parents across the country have read the story with great concern. Educators have witnessed many situations in which students become the target of bullying. Their experiences lead them to believe the bullying consists of more than physical aggression but also includes verbal aggression as evidenced by Keisha’s story. There is also the issue of aggression perpetrated online via “cyberbullying.” The educators address immediately any physical aggression they witness on school property. However, they have found that identifying and addressing acts of verbal aggression to be more challenging. Now that they are aware of Keisha’s story, they are more interested in identifying and implementing proactive means of preventing bullying.

The superintendent of schools in your town has been elected on a platform in which s/he promises to implement bullying prevention programs in the schools. At a press conference, the superintendent commented that the schools have many policies and practices in place for how to deal with bullies after an incident has taken place, but believes the schools will be best served by focusing on prevention. The superintendent recognizes that in order to design prevention programs, s/he needs to have a comprehensive understanding of the factors that lead to prejudice, stereotypes, ostracism, and bullying.

The superintendent has retained you, an applied social psychology expert, to provide a scholarly analysis of the scientific, peer-reviewed literature on the factors related to bullying such as

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Scenarios for Intervention Proposal prejudice and stereotyping, social influence, conformity, ostracism, and aggression. You must also render a professional opinion regarding your conclusion as to what the schools can do to change the culture of bullying. Your opinion should be based on the scientific, peer-reviewed social psychology research that you reviewed. The following peer-reviewed journal articles are a good place to start to familiarize yourself with the social psychology of bullying.

Cassidy, W., Faucher, C., & Jackson, M. (2013). Cyberbullying among youth: A comprehensive review of current international research and its implications and application to policy and practice. School Psychology International, 34, 575-612.

Georgiou, S.N., & Fanti, K.A. (2010). A transactional model of bullying and victimization. Social Psychology of Education, 13, 295-311.

Psy 610 week 1 disc1 question and answer

The discussion chose the first scenario that entailed a comparison between a practitioner versus scientific decision making gaps. The case described a 30-year-old lady that underwent a therapeutic session and recollected the memories of her father sexually molesting her while she was young. According to Magnussen, and Melinder, (2012), the repressed memory made the father arrested and trialed for the criminal offense against the daughter. However, the father’s attorney insisted on calling a social psychology expert that would attest that repressed memories involve speculations that don’t hold any evidence. However, the petitioners require a psychological expert that would explain that trauma victims recover their memories accurately in later periods in life. The judge in the first case requires an expert to conduct two contradicting studies to ascertain either reasoning that became insufficient. A psychology expert ought to prove that opinions raised through mental health practitioners are assumptions that have no evidence. The individual must also determine the reliability of repressed memories. Similarly, another expert might get required to ascertain whether repressed memories get recovered in the later period in life. The social psychology expert also must explain if clinical intuition and clinical training could replace scientific evidence since it’s arguable that other methods might apply in determining the truth of the matter. The judge didn’t know either reasoning that was perfect but needed at least a method of eliminating one of them. According to Patihis et al., (2014), the judge would act depending on the side that gets proven right. For instance, if clinical intuition proves correct it means the defense wins the case and repressed memories get ruled out of the case. Similarly, if it gets proven that repressed memories are true, then the judge proceeds to listen to the case and the 30-year-old petitioner must give her account before a jury. The two favorite scenarios involve that of comparing the validity of repressed memories while the second scenario entails that of false confessions. The judge faces a dilemma and must know which evidence applies in handling the matter and requires proof in dealing with the situation. In the other scenario, the police admit false confession in court and imprison a person wrongfully that raises questions on the shallow nature investigations and the role of the polygraph. According to Patihis et al., (2014), the research requires determining the reliability of clinical versus statistical judgments when it comes to repressed memories. The research intends to reveal the possibility of recovering memories of past events in later stages in life and the outcome presented in court as evidence. The research must also ponder on confirmation bias and illusionary correlation to ascertain either side that holds water. The limitations likely to get experience in the study include lack of conclusiveness in the study. The study might only generate evidence that supports the conclusion, therefore, if there could not enough evidence then the topic gets considered vague, or falsified even if it’s true. Certain evidence might get flawed which would invalidate the entire research process. The study ought to adhere with ethical considerations before getting termed appropriate. References: Magnussen, S., & Melinder, A. (2012). What psychologists know and believe about memory: A survey of practitioners. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(1), 54-60. doi:10.1002/acp.1795. Retrieved from the Academic Search Complete database through the Ashford University Library. Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F. (2014). Are the

PSY610: Applied Social Psychology Week 2 disc 1 question and answer

Scenario: The Health Club

The local health club went out of business a few months ago, citing a lack of members who were committed to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. There is a new owner who is featured in a news article discussing her strategy for success in her new health club venture. Her plan is to give prizes and other incentives to members who visit the health club at least three times per week each month and log a one hour workout each time . She also plans to reduce the monthly member fees by a percentage for each pound a member loses up to the first 20 pounds lost. She is certain that the external incentives will increase members’ intrinsic motivation to adopt a healthier lifestyle and increase their amount of exercise.

Based on your readings this week, what does the research show about the new health club owner’s strategy to motivate members to visit the health club and exercise more often? Is she on the right track with her incentives plan? Why or why not? What does the literature show about the effect of external rewards on intrinsic motivation? Based on the persuasion literature, what techniques might be successful in helping the new owner attract new business? What clues does the persuasion literature offer in terms of how to market the gym and the incentives plan successfully? Finally, how might cognitive dissonance theory and/or self-perception theory play a role in members’ adopting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle?

I really hope this is right. Darlene Foster PSY 610 Applied Social Psychology Instructor Lisa Unger Week two discussion September 8, 2017 Discussion: THE HEALTH CLUB This article inquired based on our reading this week, what does the research show about the new health club owner’s strategy to motivate members to visit the health club and exercise more often. “Dissonance is conceptualized as an aversive a psychological drive state that we are motivated to reduce, much like hunger or thirst(there is some argument about whether dissonance as a drive exists or is merely a useful concept for predicting outcome; see Kenworthy, Miller, Collins, Read& Earlywine,2011.”(McKimmie, 2015). Implying that the new health club owner’s strategy to motivate members to stay in the health club with the prospect of exercising more can bring them a better lifestyle can only be a prediction on their end. If they product some good plans they just might get some clients to participate in the three days a week, but let’s not forget from the beginning the client was not that interested, but with prizes and reduce fees this could motivate them into coming back. Now if you are the owners is could wind up backfiring on you because you do not know that not all your clients will be physical in shape to work out three days a week which can wind up being a liability rather than an incentive for the club. What does the literature show about the effect of an external rewards on intrinsic motivation? It shows that intrinsic motivation result in a high-quality learning. The effect of external rewards is exceptionally crucial to structuring the circumstances and the strength that rise rather than weaken it. One thing I believe that will help the owner’s success and be successful is to offer promotions for one-on-one training by doing this they gain knowledge of what the client need to be successful. There are also the two for one price that would allow they to bring a friend people are most likely to show up if they can bring someone to enjoy the health club with them. I believe that the clubs offered in articles on how to advertise the gym. The incentives plan successfully just may be a big help if they acknowledge the following “Healthy eating habits and lifestyle play a key role in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and hepatic steatosis.” (El-Kassas& Ziade, 2016). El-Kassas& Ziade. (2016). Exploration of the dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences university students in North Lebanon…Biomed Research International 2016-14 Retrieved from doi: 10.1155/2016/976239 MeKimmie. (2015) Cognitive dissonance in groups. Social And Personality psychology Compass: 9(4) 202-212 Retrieved from doi: 10.1111/spc3.12167

Psy 610 week 2disc 2 question and answer

Mini-Research Proposal

When evaluating research, it is important to consider gaps that exist in the current knowledge base. Reflecting on the research that you did for your Annotated Bibliography last week, think of an area in the research that seems to be lacking or in which there is a controversy. You will do this by first coming up with an appropriate applied social psychology research question. Review the
Writing a Good Research Question (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. web page, which explains how to formulate a research question and provides examples of research questions. Then, you will create a short presentation (either a screencast or PowerPoint recording) in which you will propose your idea for a study or an experiment to try and answer your research question.

Your research proposal presentation must include the following:

Your clearly stated research question

Your hypothesis

An explanation as to why this topic of research is important/necessary

Scientific support for your hypothesis (drawn from annotated bibliography)

An explanation of the research design (experimental or non-experimental)

A description of the procedure that explains

oHow many participants you will need

oWhat participants will do to complete the study

oWhat results you expect to find

  • Introduction Bullying involves aggressive behavior that based on what takes place, the frequency, and the victim that it occurs. Bullying entails aggressive behavior that occurs within school aged young people that includes power imbalance. Bullying might happen at least one or more depending on the proprietor or the victim’s vulnerability. Bullying actions include but not limited to physical and or verbal attacks, spreading rumors and issuance of threats. Exclusion of individuals from a group on purpose might be part of bullying. The discussion focuses on bullying since it’s a common issue amongst school aged children and if not well tended might cost the school performance of many young children. The research question focuses on bullying prevention and safety within the school setting. Chandler, (2017) argues that bullying imposes serious health risks to the youth, children, and teens in the United States. The discussion chose to bully because it’s a fundamental research area. The research hypothesis focuses on identifying if bullying victims expressed high depression levels compared to those that didn’t get subjected to bullying. The topic of bullying gets invaluable since it allows one comprehends the impact of bullying on one’s overall academic performance. The topic expands on bullying’s impact on the school environment. Similarly, through understanding the topic it gets easy to formulate procedures and strategies that help reduce the vice that negatively impacts the lives of youths. Scientific support The article, “Impact of a varied understanding of school bullying” informs that bullying is a common phenomenon that interferes with the development of students and teens. Different notions of bullying occur in a school setting. Knowledge deficit in the sector makes individuals undergo bullying without knowing or even fail to understand the intervention
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