1.

(01.01 MC)

Man being born, as has been proved, with a title to perfect freedom, and an uncontrouled [sic] enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of nature, equally with any other man, or number of men in the world, hath by nature a power, not only to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate, against the injuries and attempts of other men; but to judge of, and punish the breaches of that law in others, as he is persuaded the offence deserves, even with death itself, in crimes where the heinousness of the fact, in his opinion, requires it.

—From Two Treatises of Government, by John Locke

Which idea does John Locke discuss in this excerpt? (4 points)

2.

(1.04 MC)

What did James Madison write in Federalist No. 10 to counter the Anti-Federalists’ argument that it would be difficult for factions to form and control the government in a confederal system? (4 points)

5.

(1.04 MC)

The map shows the division between the Union states, including those admitted during the war, Union states that permitted slavery, Confederate states, and the territories during the Civil War.
What concept from Federalist No. 10 is represented in the map? (4 points)

7.

(01.04 MC)

Population of U.S. in 1790 (approx.) Population of New Bedford (CT) in 1790 Time to travel to New York (nation’s capital in 1790) from Connecticut Time to walk to center of New Bedford from city limits
3,900,000 3,000 1 week 1−2 hours

Based on the above table, what might be a reason for the Anti-Federalists to oppose the Constitution? (4 points)

9.

(01.18 MC)

Year Major Bills Enacted into Law by the
Confederation Congress
1782 0
1783 1
1784 1
1785 1
1786 0
1787 1
1788 0
Year Major Bills Enacted into Law by the U.S. Congress
under the Constitution
1789 5
1790 8
1791 2
1792 5
1793 3
1794 1
1795 1

Source: The Library of Congress

Which statement accurately explains the table data? (4 points)

10.

(01.07 MC)

In every State, a certain proportion of inhabitants are deprived of [the right to vote] by the constitution of the State, who will be included in the census by which the federal Constitution apportions the representatives. In this point of view the Southern States might retort…that the principle laid down by the convention required that no regard should be had to the policy of particular States towards their own inhabitants; and consequently, that the slaves, as inhabitants, should have been admitted into the census according to their full number, in like manner with other inhabitants, who, by the policy of other States, are not admitted to all the rights of citizens. A rigorous adherence, however, to this principle, is waived by those who would be gainers by it. All that they ask is that equal moderation be shown on the other side. Let the case of the slaves be considered, as it is in truth, a peculiar one.

—James Madison, from Federalist Paper No. 54

How did the Northern states’ position contrast with this argument? (4 points)

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