Q1 : In chapter1, the focus was on targeting five communities that make up the core field for ICT-enabled policy-making.  Name those five communities involved, and briefly explain to support your answer? Q2 (a): In the chapters, both the authors, (Ahrweiler, P., and Gilbert, N.) suggested that there was a need for quality simulation modeling education.  In addition, the authors identified two types of public servants that need this education.  Name the two types of public servants, and briefly explain why it’s important for these two types of servants to receive this education? (1.25 Points to be earned). According to Chalmers et al. (1995, p. 173), validation of a simulation against empirical data is not about comparing “the real world” and the simulation output; it is a comparison of what is observed as the real world with what is observed as the output.  In this scenario, both are constructions of observers and their views concerning relevant agents and their attributes. Constructing reality and simulation are just two-way of an observer seeing the world. The issue of objective, formation is not normally considered by computer scientists relying on the standard view: data is “organized by a human programmer who appropriately fits them into the chosen representational structure. Usually, researchers use their prior knowledge of the nature of the problem to hand-code a representation of the data into a near-optimal form Q2 (b): In consideration of the constructionist’s views regarding the quality of social simulation as an example of research-based and policy modeling approach, briefly state what happens when the possibility of validating a simulation by comparing it with empirical data from the “real world” is questioned? (1.25 Points to be earned).

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