Comment Commentonat least 3 Classmates’Posts (approximately  150 -300 words each)§ – comment must address the R2R prompt and your classmate’s response substantively; if you agree or disagree, provide reasoning and rational evidence from the readings to support your position – build on the ideas of what your classmate has written and dig deeper into the ideas – support your views through research you have read or through your personal and/or professional experiences§demonstrate a logical progression of ideas – comments need to be thoughtful and substantive; not gratuitous comments like “this was a good post” or simply that “you agree”. Simply congratulating the writer on their astute insights is insufficient. – cite the readings in your response by using proper APA Style format and conventions. classmate 1 Pragmatism is defined as a philosophical approach in which experience is the fundamental concept. Radu explains that in pragmatism, each experience is based on the interaction between subject and object, between self and its world and represents only the result of the integration of human beings into the environment (Radu, 2011). All in all, pragmatism promotes activity based learning. Pragmatism relates to Dewey’s work in many ways. The most significant being its rejection of traditional learning, and its emphasis on solving problems in a sensible way that suits conditions that really exist rather than obeying fixed theories, ideas, or rules (Cambridge, 2016). Progressivism is a philosophical concept belonging to ‘new education’, is ‘a Copernican revolution’ in pedagogy, promoting ‘a child-centered school’ (Radu, 2011). Radu states that Dewey’s pedagogic view is not based on his philosophical concept, but al on the social, economic and cultural realities of American society (pg. 87). Progressivism is featured around the learning capacity continuing into adulthood; Dewey called this “permanent education”. Learning is done by doing; this is because Dewey believed authentic knowledge is achieved only through direct experience. Although Dewey though some target methods were necessary when teaching, he did not believe in teachers being forced to stick to routines (Radu 2011). This idea leads to the problem-problem solving method which in short states that in order to solve problem, an individual must: define the problem, analyze the problem, determine possible solutions, propose solutions, evaluate and select a solution, and determine strategies to implement solution. The progressive theory encourages learning through discovery, this allows the learner to acquire knowledge through interest, rather than effort. Ragu also states that there are reactions against Dewey’s progressive education. Perennialism says that permanence is the fundamental feature of the world; not change. School is intended to promote the permanent values of the past and present. Essentialists believed the main purpose of school was to prepare the youth intellectually, by transmitting cultural heritage. Students learn through theoretical education; by being in direct contact with fundamental values, with what was essential and common for humankind. Reconstructionism criticized the individual tendencies of theory. This theory also felt that Dewey underappreciated the fact of cultural contributions to social changes (pg. 89). Edmonson gives many examples as to how Dewey’s theories are flawed; he states that not only are Dewey’s findings controversial, they are also viewed with antipathy by some (pg. 2). Dianne Ravitch notes John Dewey’s influence in generating at least two of the misconceptions that now cripple American education: the use of schools to solve social and political problems and the depreciation of academics in favor of assorted “activities”. Edmonson believes that Dewey’s education systems are impractical. Overall, when reading Hildreth and Edmondson’s articles the biggest takeaway was that Dewey is criticized for not explaining himsel…

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