1. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 2. The philosophy that emphasizes “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” is known as: a. Hedonism. b. The principle of utility. c. The cartographic approach. d. The contrast effect. 3. The doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life is known as: a. Hedonism. b. The principle of utility. c. The cartographic approach. d. The contrast effect. 4. The philosopher the most closely associated with the principle of utility was: a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 5. _____ specifically refers to the weighing of anticipated benefits of a given course of action against its possible costs. a. Human agency b. Hedonistic calculus c. Rationality d. Positivism 6. _____ are known for the emphasis that they place on the scientific method. a. Classicalists b. Hedonists c. Structuralists d. Positivists 7. Prior to the eighteenth century, explanations of crime and other human behavior tended to center on: a. Human rationality. b. Inborn traits. c. Social influences. d. Religiosity or spiritualism. 8. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature? a. Classicalism b. Ecological Determinism c. Positivism d. The Italian School 9. The 8th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment; this is most closely aligned with the ideas of which of the following? a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria 10. _____ was the term used by Lombroso to refer to those whom he considered to be evolutionary throwbacks, biological inferior beings who resembled ancestral prehuman forms of life. a. Atavism b. Criminaloid c. Habitual Criminal d. Hedonist 11. Rather than exploring why individuals commit crime, _____ criminologists are interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent. a. Cartographic b. Classical c. Hedonistic d. Neoclassical 12. According to Raffael Garofalo, societies can only be protected from _____ criminals by swiftly executing them, regardless of the crime for which they were being punished. a. Endemic b. Extreme c. Impulsive d. Professional 13. Criminologist Raffael Garofalo categorized alcoholics and the insane as _____ criminals. a. Endemic b. Extreme c. Impulsive d. Professional 14. Cesare Lombroso, Raffael Garofalo, and Enrico Ferri founded what became known as the _____ school of criminology. a. American b. French c. German d. Italian 15. The idea that the punishment should be tailored to the risk level of the individual, not the crime, is most representative of the _____ school of criminology. a. Classical b. German c. Italian d. Russian 16. Engaging in a debate about the death penalty, one person makes the argument that while the penalty may not deter offenders, it is still a valuable punishment in the name of social defense. This is most clearly representative of the _____ school of criminology. a. Classical b. German c. Italian d. Russian 17. _____ is a concept in rational choice theory referring to how people decide to offend. a. Choice structuring b. Choice offending c. Rational structuring d. Rational offending 18. _____ specifically refers to the concept that people have the capacity to make choices, and the moral responsibility to make moral choices regardless of any constraints that might exist. a. Human agency b. Hedonistic calculus c. Rationality d. Positivism 19. Rational choice theory is most closely linked to the _____ school. a. Classical b. German c. Italian d. Positivist 20. Modern criminology is the product of which two main schools of thought? a. Rational choice and neoclassical b. Classical and neoclassical c. Social defense and rational choice d. Classical and positivist 21. _____ is the prevention of criminal acts by the use or threat of punish…

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