Question 1 The expectancy theory of motivation focuses on: individual needs. social exchange processes. personal perceptions. learning. Question 2 Frederick Taylor’s scientific management advanced the idea that: unfulfilled needs acted as   motivation. the relationship of management and   labor should be one of cooperation rather than conflict. money was not a motivator. self-interest and economic gain are   motivators for the owners of production and not the employees of owners Question 3 Persons who have a strong desire to influence others are high in the: need for achievement. need for affiliation. need for safety. need for power. Question 4 The expectancy theory prediction that people work to maximize their personal outcomes is consistent with: Adams’ equity theory of social   exchange contributions/inputs. Adam Smith’s ideas of working in   one’s own self interest. Maslow’s hierarchy of need and the   progression hypothesis. Herzberg’s emphasis on pay and   hygiene factors. Question 5 According to the Protestant ethic, a person should work hard because hard work and prosperity would lead to a place in heaven. The organizational scholar who advanced the Protestant Ethic notion was     . John Calvin Sigmund Freud Adam Smith Max Weber Question 6 Modern management practices such as employee management recognition programs, flexible benefit packages, and stock ownership plans emphasize: internal needs. intrinsic motivation. external incentives. the principle of the psychodynamic   theory Question 7 Adam Smith formulated the “invisible hand” and the free market to explain the motivation for individual behavior. The “invisible hand” refers to: personal ethics in a free market   system. unconscious motives. internal needs. unseen forces of a free market   system. Question 8 The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used to measure: a person’s tendency to not use   perception. the achievement motive of an   individual. the equity perceptions of an   individual. cognitive themes of an individual. Question 9 Which of the following is considered a motivating factor in Herzberg’s two-factor theory? Recognition Fringe benefits Supervision Working conditions Question 10 McGregor believed that Theory X assumptions were appropriate for: individuals located at the top of the   organization. employees located at the lower level   of the organization. individuals motivated by lower order   needs. individuals motivated by higher order   needs. Question 11 The motivation theory that holds that employee motivation is determined by the belief that a valued outcome will result from effort is called the: equity theory. goal-setting theory. expectancy theory. two-factor theory. Question 12 The proposition that a person’s life was founded on the compulsion to work and the power of love is related to the: Protestant ethic. psychoanalytic approach. process theories. Calvinistic perspective on   motivation. Question 13 Maslow’s progression hypothesis states that: as one level of need is satisfied, an   individual considers the next higher level of need as a source of motivation. it is important to focus more on the   physical and economic needs of individuals than on their psychological and   interpersonal needs. individuals will move up the   hierarchy of needs as well as down the hierarchy. higher order needs are more important   than lower order needs. Question 14 The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior is called: energizing. psychoanalysis. motivation. affiliation. Question 15 The sets of needs related to the animalistic avoidance of pain and human desire for psychological growth form the basis for: Theory X & Theory Y. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. McClelland’s need theory. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Question 16 In the context of schedules of reinforcement, if a random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs, it is a ________ schedule. fixed interval fixed ratio variable interval variable …

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