You will answer these questions using your own words. You won’t copy and paste from elsewhere because that only harms your own understanding. These questions are your best practice on how to apply the concepts from this module to new scenarios. Take it seriously so you can do well on the exams.

Questions for group discussion:

  1. Make a diagram (or multiple diagrams) indicating the steps and the enzymes involved in DNA replication in Prokaryotes. A) In the diagram include the following labels: primase, RNA primer, DNA polymerase I & III, Helicase, ligase, Topoisomerase, Okazaki fragments, 3′ and 5’ends, leading strand, lagging strand) B) List the events on each steps. Draw it in paper, take a photo or scan it and insert it as an image embeded in the discussion post (use the image icon, see below).
  2. Explain why the replication of one of the DNA strands is continuous while the other strand is discontinuous. What causes this difference?
  3. A) What are telomeres? B) Are telomeres present in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes? C) Explain why some cells have telomeres and others don’t (base your explanation on the structure of the DNA molecule and the directionality of polymerases).
  4. A) Assuming the life of a cell starts as soon as cell division is completed and ends when the cell starts a new process of cellular division, how many times in a cell’s life does it replicate its DNA? Explain. B) How is DNA replication related to mitosis? C) When does a multicellular organism undergo mitosis (when it wants to reproduce, all the time, only when injured, when it’s growing, or when)?
  5. A) Draw the cell on the right (note that the letters indicate the gene and alleles present in each chromosome, show those letters on every drawing) as it goes through the cell cycle and indicate the main things that happen to its chromosomes at each stage (label: sister chromatids, homologous chromosomes, G1, S, G2, Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis, indicate the 3 checkpoints). Draw it in paper and upload a photo or scan, post it as an image embeded in the discussion post (use the image icon, see below). mod4_discussion.jpg
  6. Discuss A) why cell division requires multiple checkpoints and B) what is the role of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in normal cells and C) how are proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes related to cancer?

Use this game to practice: (Links to an external site.)

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