Please answer the 3 questions about the readings that are provided below. Your work will be checked for originality.

There is no upper limit to how many words you write, however you must write a minimum of 500 words total.

Answer the questions as well as you can. The goal is to demonstrate that you have done the readings carefully. The better you demonstrate your genuine engagement with the readings, the better your grade will be.

Please remember to use quotes from the readings in your answer. When you insert a quote from the readings, don’t forget to note exactly where the quote comes from. Please use footnotes or endnotes, and include the author, title, and page number of the source of your quote.

A. READ Kang, Wenqing. “Male Same-Sex Relations in Modern China: Language, Media Representation, and Law, 1900-1949,” in positions: east asia cultures critique, 2010, vol. 18, no. 2, special issue on “Beyond the Strai(gh)ts: Transnationalism and Queer Chinese Politics,” ed. Liu, Petrus and Lisa Rofel: 489-510.

Answer the following questions: In contrast to Martin, Kang suggests that early 20th-century Western psychological understandings of male homosexuality were adopted in China because they were “similar to the local understanding of male same-sex relations.” What did he mean? What are two examples that Kang discusses of existing ways of viewing male homosexuality that were negative (and therefore fit with Western pathologized notions of homosexuality)? Why was homosexuality excluded from certain categories of criminal sexual behavior, according to Kang?

B. READ Rofel, Lisa. “Qualities of Desire: Imagining Gay Identities,” in Desiring China: Experiments in Neoliberalism, Sexuality, and Public Culture. Chapel Hill: Duke University Press, 2007: 85-110.

Answer the following questions: Rofel asks why people assume that “a global gay identity exists.” What is her answer? What do you think? What does Rofel say about the concept of “face” with respect to “coming out” for gay men in China? What are the assumptions about homosexuality that visitors like non- Chinese activists bring to China from overseas sometimes bring?


C. Read the following and summarize it in your own words:

“Male Love Lost: The Fate of Male Same-Sex Prostitution in Beijing in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,” by Wu Cuncun and Mark Stevenson, in Embodied Modernities: Corporeality, Representation, and Chinese Cultures, ed. Martin, Fran and Larissa Heinrich, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 2006: 42-59.

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