Present four general causal loop diagrams (CLDs), one each for the four phases of the spread of nonnative forest insects and pathogens: Absent, Localized, Spreading, and Pervasive (see Lovett et al. Fig 2).

For each diagram depict the appropriate policy(ies) that would reduce impacts.

Limit the number of elements to 10 for all four CLDs.

Provide supporting background discussion of the diagram, the technical viability of the policy, and the costs implications.

Draw from your readings and class discussion. As noted in the Homework 2 rubric, this essay must focus on one nonnative species. Please note that Lovett provides a robust treatment of the absent and localized phases, but that additional research will be necessary to provide a balanced approach to all four phases.

Please use the Kumu tool to draw your CLDs.

Submission: Maximum paper length including diagrams but not references: 10 pages, double-spaced, 12-point font, minimum of 5 references, APA citation style.

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